Manipuri is an indo burman language spoken mostly in the north east region of india.
It is also included in the eighth schedule of the Indian constitution. The optional paper is of 250 marks each and is very important to fetch good rank. Aspirants who are well versed with the language should opt for this subject as it requires you to write the paper in the language itself.
Paper 1 of this language deals with the origin of the language and its historical context whereas paper 2 deals with the literary works of some famous manipuri authors and their critical analysis.
Literature subjects prove to be good for rejuvenation as the novels and poems are all very interesting and are very different from the rest of the upsc syllabus.
One of the major pros of choosing the subject is it does not require your specialization and can be picked by anyone who has an interest and awareness about the language.
a) General characteristics of Manipuri Language and history of its development; its importance and status among the Tibeto-Burman Languages of North-East India; recent development in the study of Manipuri language; evolution and study of old Manipuri script.
b) Significant features of Manipuri language:
i) Phonology-Phoneme-vowels, consonants juncture, tone, consonant cluster and its occurrence, syllable-its structure, pattern, and types.
ii) Morphology: Word-class, root and its types; affix and its types; grammatical categories-gender, number, person, case, tense and aspects, process of compounding (samas and sandhi).
iii) Syntax: Word order: types of sentences, phrases and clause structures.
a) Literary History of Manipuri :
Early period (upto 17th century)-Social and cultural background; Themes, diction and style of the works.
Medieval period (18th and 19th century)- Social, religious and political background; Themes, diction and style of the works.
Modern period-Growth of major literary forms; change of Themes, diction and style.
b) Manipuri Folk Literature :
Legend, Folktale, Folksong, Ballad, Proverb and Riddle.
c) Aspects of Manipuri Culture :
Pre-Hindu Manipuri Faith; Advent of Hinduism and the process of syncretism.
Performing arts-Lai Haraoba, Maha Ras; Indigenous games-Sagol Kangjei, Khong Kangjei, Kang.
Old and Medieval Manipuri Literature
a) Old Manipuri Literature
Bhogeswar Singh (Ed.): Numit Kappa
Gourachandra Singh (Ed.): Thawanthaba Hiran
Khelchandra Singh (Ed.): Naothingkhong Phambal Kaba
Chandra Singh (Ed.): Panthoibi Khonggul
b) Medieval Manipuri Literature:
Chandra Singh (Ed.): Samsok Ngamba
R.K.Snahal Singh (Ed.): Ramayana Adi Kanda
Khelchandra SIngh (Ed.): Dhananjoy Laibu Ningba
Bhogeswar Singh (Ed.): Chandrakirti Jila Changba
Modern Manipuri Literature
a) Poetry and Epic :
a) Manipuri Sheireng (Pub) Manipuri Sahitya Parishad, 1988 (ed.)
Kh. Chaoba Singh : Pi Thadoi, Lamgi Chekla Amada, Loktak
Dr. L. Kamal Singh : Nirjanata, Nirab Rajani
Minaketan Singh : Kamalda, Nonggumlakkhoda
Samarendra Singh : Ingagi Nong, Mamang Leikai Thambal Satle
Nilakanta Singh : Manipur, Lamangnaba
Shri Biren : Tangkhul Hui
Th. Ibopishak : Anouba Thunglaba Jiba
b) Kanchi Sheireng. (Pub) Manipur University 1998 (ed.)
Dr. L. Kamal Singh : Biswa-Prem
Shri Biren : Chaphadraba Laigi Yen
Th. Ibopishak : Norok Patal Prithivi
Dorendrajit Singh : Kansa Bodha
Anganghal Singh : Khamba-Thoibi Sheireng (San-Senba, Lei Langba, Shamu Khonggi Bichar)
(III) Drama :
Lalit Singh : Areppa Marup
G.C. Tongbra : Matric Pass
Samarendra : Judge Sahebki Imung
b) Novel, Short-story and Prose :
(I) Novel :
Dr. L. Kamal Singh : Madhabi
Anganghal Singh : Jahera
Guno Singh : Laman
Pacha Meetei : Imphal Amasung, Magi Ishing, Nungsitki Phibam
(II) Short-story :
a) Kanchi Warimacha (Pub) Manipur University 1997 (ed.)
R.K. Shitaljit Singh : Kamala Kamala
M.K. Binodini : Eigi Thahoudraba Heitup Lalu
Kh. Prakash : Wanom Shareng
b) Parishadki Khangatlaba Warimacha (Pub) Manipuri Sahitya Parishad 1994 (ed.)
Nilbir Shastri : Loukhatpa
R.K. Elangba : Karinunggi
c) Anouba Manipuri Warimacha (Pub) The Cultural Forum Manipur 1992 (ed.)
Kunjamohon Singh : Ijat Tanba
Dinamani : Nongthak Khongnang
(III) Prose :
a) Warenggi Saklon [Due Part (Pub) The Cultural Forum Manipur 1992 (ed.)
Kh. Chaoba Singh : Khamba-Thoibigi Wari Amasung Mahakavya
b) Kanchi Wareng (Pub) Manipur University 1998 (ed.)
Manisana Shastri : Phajaba
Ch. Manihar Singh : Lai-Haraoba
c) Apunba Wareng. (Pub) Manipur University, 1986 (ed.)
Ch. Pishak Singh : Samaj Amasung, Sanskriti
M.K. Binodini : Thoibidu Warouhouida
Eric Newton: Kalagi Mahousa (translated by I.R. Babu)
d) Manipuri Wareng (Pub) The Cultural Forum Manipur 1999 (ed.)
1.old and medieval manipuri literature
- O.bhageswar singh (ed.)-numit Kappa
- O. Gourachandra singh (ed.)-thawanthaba hiran
- N.khelchandra singh(ed.)-naothing khong ,pambal khaba
- M.chandra singh(ed).-panthoibi khonggul
- M chandra singh(ed.)-samsok ngamba
- R K. Snahal singh(ed.)-ramayana adi kanda
- N.khelchandra singh(ed.)-dhananjoy laibu ningma
- O.bhogeswar singh(ed.)-chandrakirti jila changba