#76 What is the referred Syllabus and Booklist for Kashmiri Literature Optional in UPSC CSE Mains?

Kashmiri language is widely spoken in Kashmir and parts of Jammu region. It belongs to the Indo aryan family of languages.

It is one of the optional subjects in the UPSC exam. The literature subjects are very interesting if one has a good command over the language. It involves the study of the history and origin of the language. The paper also reviews critical analysis of the literary works of famous authors. One must practise answer writing as it requires you to put your opinion about the work and compare and contrast it with other works in different languages. The answers have to be written in kashmiri language itself.  Anyone who wishes to study the language and explore it can choose this subject . The syllabus and book list have been mentioned below for your understanding. You must suffice them with previous year question papers and Topper’s answer sheet to get a general idea about the level of questions asked.


Paper 1

Section A

Genealogical relationship of the Kashmiri language: various theories.

Areas of occurrence and dialects (geographical/social)

Phonology and grammar:

Vowel and consonant system;

Nouns and pronouns with various case inflections;

Verbs: various types and tenses.

Syntactic structure:

Simple, active and declarative statements



Section B

Kashmiri literature in the 14th century (Socio-cultural and intellectual background with special reference to Lal

Dyad and Sheikhul Alam)Nineteenth century Kashmiri literature (development of various genres: vatsun; ghazal; and mathnavi).

Kashmiri literature in the first half of the twentieth century (with special reference to Mahjoor and Azad; various literary influences).

Modern Kashmiri literature (with special reference to the development of the short story, drama, novel, and nazm).


Section A

Intensive study of Kashmiri poetry upto the nineteenth century:

 Lal Dyad

Sheikhul Aalam

Habba Khatoon

Kashmiri poetry: 19th Century 

Mahmood Gami (Vatsans)

Maqbool Shah (Gulrez) 

Rasool Mir (Ghazals) 

Abdul Ahad Nadim (N’at)

Krishanjoo Razdan (Shiv Lagun)

Sufi Poets (Text in Sanglaab, published by the Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir)

Twentieth Century Kashmiri poetry (text in Azich Kashir Shairi, published by the Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir)

Literary criticism and research work: development and various trends.


An analytical study of the short story in Kashmiri.

Afsana Majmu’a, published by the Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir.

Kashur Afsana Az, published by the Sahitya Akademi

Hamasar Kashur Afsana, published by the Sahitya Akademi.

 The following short story writers only:Akhtar Mohi-ud-Din, Kamil, Hari Krishan Kaul, Hraday Kaul Bharti, Bansi Nirdosh, Gulshan Majid. 

Novel in Kashmiri:

Mujrim by G.N. Gowhar

Marun-Ivan Ilyichun, (Kashmiri version of Tolstoy’s The Death of Ivan Ilyich (Published by Kashmiri Deptt).

Drama in Kashmiri

Natuk Kariv Band, by Hari Krishan Kaul

Qk Angy Natuk, ed. Motilal Keemu published by Sahitya Akademi.

Razi Oedipus, tr. Naji Munawar, published by Sahitya Akademi.

Kashmiri Folk Literature:

Kashur Luki Theatre by Mohammad Subhan Bhagat, published by Deptt. of Kashmiri, University of Kashmir.

Kashiry Luki Beeth (all volumes) published by the J & K Cultural Academy.


  1. Anhaar – Kashmir University Journal
  2. Kasher Adbuk Tawareekh – Shafi Shouq
  3. Kashir Zaban Te Adab – Cultural Academy
  4. Kashiruk Grammar – Shafi Shouq
  5. Kashiry Luki Beeth
  6. Kashur Luki Theatre-Mohammad Subhan Bhagat
  7. Marun-Ivan Ilyich
  8. Mujrim by G.N. Gowhar
  9. Natuk Kariv Band-Hari Krishan Kaul
  10. Qk Angy Natuk, ed. Motilal Keemu
  11. Razi Oedipus, tr. Naji Munawar
  12. Sheraza – Cultural Academy

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