The post-independence history of India is a topic in the UPSC mains GS paper I. The syllabus simply says, ‘Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country’. It does not specify any sub-heading or topics for the candidates to read about. And, since it has been 73 years since 1947 when the country achieved its freedom from colonial rule, there have been many events that have shaped the way India is progressing onwards.
What should the strategy or approach be from an aspirant to follow for Post- Independence Topic this question would prevail in every aspirants mind.
Lets simplify this by understanding the Topics to be read for this portion of Syllabus:
India Since Independence
The topics under this section have been divided into various eras as given below.
- Aftermath of partition
- Integration of the princely states
- Issue of the official language (this recurs in most eras)
- Reorganisation of states
- Tribal consolidation and issues
- The foreign policy of Pandit Nehru
PM Shastri Era
- Official language issue
- Food shortage
- Economic crisis
- Indo-Pak war
PM Indira Gandhi Era
- Official language
- Split in congress (diminishing of Congress hegemony in regions)
- Issue of inflation
- Green revolution
- Punjab crisis – Operation Blue Star
- Land reforms
- Bank nationalisation
- Naxal movement
- 1971 war with Pakistan
- Janta movement
PM Rajiv Gandhi Era
- Environment (focus on this topic for the first time by the government)
- Anti-defection law
- Women movements – Dowry Prohibition Act, Shah Bano case
- Modernisation of army
- Panchayati Raj
The post-1991 era or the era of liberalization era involves the time of Prime Ministers V P Singh, Narasimha Rao, etc. You should read about coalition politics, the Mandal Commission, and other issues. It is suggested that you make notes as and when you read these topics. Many of the issues here are contemporary issues as well or have ramifications that are still affecting the country.
When it comes to Booklist ,one of the best books for the study of this topic is Bipan Chandra’s ‘India since Independence’.